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Comandos Básicos do vi

Primeiramente gostaria de salientar que não sou o autor principal do conteúdo deste artigo. A minha intenção é de mostrar o que outros autores tem realizado (referenciando links para o conteúdo original) neste blog até como um guia pessoal para uso próprio e ainda compartilhar minhas anotações e pequenas modificações que realizo no conteúdo, desejando que possa ajudar mais alguém em algum lugar.
First and foremost, I take no credit for any of this post’s content. I am really just taking what others have done (which I have links to bellow) and am putting it on my blog for a personal reference and hopefully the small changes that I made to their guides will help someone somewhere.

Uso o vi somente para alterar o arquivo cron em:
vi /etc/crontab

E sempre preciso me lembrar dos comandos básicos do vi abaixo (transcrevo aqui para não perder minha referência):

To Get Into and Out Of vi

To Start vi

To use vi on a file, type in vi filename. If the file named filename exists, then the first page (or screen) of the file will be displayed; if the file does not exist, then an empty file and screen are created into which you may enter text.
*vi filenameedit filename starting at line 1
 vi -r filenamerecover filename that was being edited when system crashed

To Exit vi

Usually the new or modified file is saved when you leave vi. However, it is also possible to quit vi without saving the file.
Note: The cursor moves to bottom of screen whenever a colon (:) is typed. This type of command is completed by hitting the <Return> (or <Enter>) key.
*:x<Return>quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation
 :wq<Return>quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation
 :q<Return>quit (or exit) vi
*:q!<Return>quit vi even though latest changes have not been saved for this vi call

Moving the Cursor

Unlike many of the PC and MacIntosh editors, the mouse does not move the cursor within the vi editor screen (or window). You must use the the key commands listed below. On some UNIX platforms, the arrow keys may be used as well; however, since vi was designed with the Qwerty keyboard (containing no arrow keys) in mind, the arrow keys sometimes produce strange effects in vi and should be avoided.
If you go back and forth between a PC environment and a UNIX environment, you may find that this dissimilarity in methods for cursor movement is the most frustrating difference between the two.
In the table below, the symbol ^ before a letter means that the <Ctrl> key should be held down while the letter key is pressed.
*j or <Return> 
  [or down-arrow]
move cursor down one line
*k [or up-arrow]move cursor up one line
*h or <Backspace> 
  [or left-arrow]
move cursor left one character
*l or <Space> 
  [or right-arrow]
move cursor right one character
*0 (zero)move cursor to start of current line (the one with the cursor)
*$move cursor to end of current line
 wmove cursor to beginning of next word
 bmove cursor back to beginning of preceding word
 :0<Return> or 1Gmove cursor to first line in file
 :n<Return> or nGmove cursor to line n
 :$<Return> or Gmove cursor to last line in file

Screen Manipulation

The following commands allow the vi editor screen (or window) to move up or down several lines and to be refreshed.
 ^fmove forward one screen
 ^bmove backward one screen
 ^dmove down (forward) one half screen
 ^umove up (back) one half screen
 ^lredraws the screen
 ^rredraws the screen, removing deleted lines

Adding, Changing, and Deleting Text

Unlike PC editors, you cannot replace or delete text by highlighting it with the mouse. Instead use the commands in the following tables.
Perhaps the most important command is the one that allows you to back up and undo your last action. Unfortunately, this command acts like a toggle, undoing and redoing your most recent action. You cannot go back more than one step.
*uUNDO WHATEVER YOU JUST DID; a simple toggle
The main purpose of an editor is to create, add, or modify text for a file.

Inserting or Adding Text

The following commands allow you to insert and add text. Each of these commands puts the vi editor into insert mode; thus, the <Esc> key must be pressed to terminate the entry of text and to put the vi editor back into command mode.
*iinsert text before cursor, until <Esc> hit
 Iinsert text at beginning of current line, until <Esc> hit
*aappend text after cursor, until <Esc> hit
 Aappend text to end of current line, until <Esc> hit
*oopen and put text in a new line below current line, until <Esc> hit
*Oopen and put text in a new line above current line, until <Esc> hit

Changing Text

The following commands allow you to modify text.
*rreplace single character under cursor (no <Esc> needed)
 Rreplace characters, starting with current cursor position, until <Esc> hit
 cwchange the current word with new text, 
starting with the character under cursor, until <Esc> hit
 cNwchange N words beginning with character under cursor, until <Esc> hit; 
  e.g., c5w changes 5 words
 Cchange (replace) the characters in the current line, until <Esc> hit
 ccchange (replace) the entire current line, stopping when <Esc> is hit
 Ncc or cNcchange (replace) the next N lines, starting with the current line,
stopping when <Esc> is hit

Deleting Text

The following commands allow you to delete text.
*xdelete single character under cursor
 Nxdelete N characters, starting with character under cursor
 dwdelete the single word beginning with character under cursor
 dNwdelete N words beginning with character under cursor; 
  e.g., d5w deletes 5 words
 Ddelete the remainder of the line, starting with current cursor position
*dddelete entire current line
 Ndd or dNddelete N lines, beginning with the current line; 
  e.g., 5dd deletes 5 lines

Cutting and Pasting Text

The following commands allow you to copy and paste text.
 yycopy (yank, cut) the current line into the buffer
 Nyy or yNycopy (yank, cut) the next N lines, including the current line, into the buffer
 pput (paste) the line(s) in the buffer into the text after the current line

Other Commands

Searching Text

A common occurrence in text editing is to replace one word or phase by another. To locate instances of particular sets of characters (or strings), use the following commands.
 /stringsearch forward for occurrence of string in text
 ?stringsearch backward for occurrence of string in text
 nmove to next occurrence of search string
 Nmove to next occurrence of search string in opposite direction

Determining Line Numbers

Being able to determine the line number of the current line or the total number of lines in the file being edited is sometimes useful.
 :.=returns line number of current line at bottom of screen
 :=returns the total number of lines at bottom of screen
 ^gprovides the current line number, along with the total number of lines,
in the file at the bottom of the screen

Saving and Reading Files

These commands permit you to input and output files other than the named file with which you are currently working.

 :r filename<Return>read file named filename and insert after current line 
(the line with cursor)
 :w<Return>write current contents to file named in original vi call
 :w newfile<Return>write current contents to a new file named newfile
 :12,35w smallfile<Return>write the contents of the lines numbered 12 through 35 to a new file named smallfile
 :w! prevfile<Return>write current contents over a pre-existing file named prevfile

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